A total of 35 indicators that represent sustainable innovation were selected according to two essential criteria of representation and availability. The indicators originate from public and current sources, and they cover practically all the 28 European Union countries.
The indicators have been grouped into three categories according to the stage of sustainable innovation they contribute to: Potential, Activity and Results.



This represents the country’s policies and the conditioning factors for the atmosphere



This represents the investments and projects for innovation



This represents the benefits for the environment, society and organisations

Within each category, the indicators were classified into three aspects: Environmental, Social and Good Governance.

Each aspect carries the same weight in every category, thereby making it possible to analyse the balance between these three pillars of sustainability in different scenarios.

All the data has been standardised to a common scale using a standard deviation based on an EU28=100 average in order to compare the different scales used by the information sources. The extreme values were limited to 3 standard deviations compared to the average, thereby setting the lower limit at 50 and the upper limit at 150. This scale makes it possible to easily measure the differences compared to the European average. As a result, a country with a score of 112 for a certain indicator is 12% above the average and a country with a score of 88 is 12% below the average.

The scale from 50 to 150 is designed to make it easier to perform relative comparisons between countries. An absolute index has also been calculated in parallel to observe the overall evolution of the parameters, and the average performance for the EU in 2016 has been set at 10,000 points The absolute index is calculated by comparing every indicator with the European average for 2016, assigning a multiplier between 0 and 2 (depending on each value), and applying the same weight by section for the aggregate value.

64% of the indicators are for objective data and the remaining 36% are for perception-type indicators based primarily on the Executive Opinion Surveys published by the World Economic Forum. Due to the contextual component of these perceptions, these types of indicators have been assigned a relative weight of 50% compared to the objective indicators.

wdt_IDDatosIndicadores de PotencialIndicadores de ActividadIndicadores de Resultados
1 Medio Ambiente Exigencia de la regulación ambiental Empleo en I+D ambiental Índice de Desempeño Ambiental
2 Rigurosidad en la aplicación de la regulación ambiental Empleo en eco-industrias Productividad de la energía
3 Gasto en protección ambiental Patentes en tecnologías ambientales Emisiones de GEI per capita
4 Ingresos por impuestos ambientales Publicaciones académicas relacionadas con eco-innovación Implementación de energías renovables
5 Entorno favorable a la innovación en tecnologías limpias Gasto en I+D en energías limpias y eficiencia energética Productividad de los recursos naturales
6 Ventas de las eco-industrias
7 Social Población con educación terciaria Empleo en I+D social Esperanza de vida
8 Mujeres en empleo con educación avanzada Patentes en tecnologías de la salud Accesibilidad social del sistema de salud
9 Desempleo juvenil Ratio Mujeres / Hombres en empleo
10 Sofisticación del consumidor